Why on earth is Barclays (still) cutting the remittance lifeline to Somalia?

October 2, 2013

What does your project plan most resemble – baking a cake, landing a rocket on the moon, or raising a child?

October 2, 2013

What Can Vietnam’s excellent schools teach us about education quality and equality?

October 2, 2013
empty image
empty image

This guest post comes from Jo Boyden, Director of the Young Lives study at Oxford University’s Department of International Development.Jo_Boydent

Alongside economic growth, the huge dash for education is fuelling massive expectations among the swelling youth populations in developing countries. Dramatic expansion of education systems over the past few decades has been accompanied by an international push for universal access through major initiatives such as Education For All and the Millennium Development Goals. Now the latest 3ie Working Paper, concludes that development interventions are succeeding in getting more children into school and keeping them there.

Even so our latest findings, from Oxford University’s large-scale Young Lives study – which is following 12,000 children in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam over 15 years – show that sending children to school and committing to keep them there involves huge challenges for countless poor families. It often means taking children away from work that boosts fragile family incomes and also involves significant costs for textbooks, uniforms and transport. But despite this, parents and children are prepared to make enormous sacrifices for children to attend, many families selling livestock or land or getting into serious debt to cope with the expense, particularly of the burgeoning low-fee private sector.

Families are willing to do this because they believe that schooling offers a way out of poverty, the drudgery of labour-intensive occupations like herding and farming, and a means of releasing future generations from the hardship and suffering endured by their parents. As one Peruvian farmer told us, “I … walk in the fields in sandals. At least he will have shoes if he gets a good head with education”, and a woman recalled her daughter saying, “We’re not going to suffer like this in the mud… it’s better that I go and study.”

Most families in our study are very poor and many of the parents have very little or no education themselves. Despite this, our surveys have found half the parents of 8-year-olds in Ethiopia, Peru and Vietnam want their child to complete university.

But are their hopes warranted? Across the developing world, school teaching standards are extremely uneven and many pupils fall far behind the level of learning expected for their age.

The 2012 study by India’s ASER research centre found 47% of Indian grade 5 pupils unable to subtract even two-digit numbers, and more than half of grade 5 children in rural schools unable to read a test designed for pupils in grade 2.

Probably not a Vietnamese student....

Probably not a Vietnamese student....

By contrast, Vietnam is a beacon of hope. Young Lives recent Vietnam School Survey found that pupil performance in Vietnam (where per capita GDP is broadly similar to that of India) is truly exceptional. Around 19 out of every 20 ten year-olds can add four-digit numbers; 85% can subtract fractions and 81% are able to find X in a simple equation.

The education system in Vietnam is relatively equitable and this means that poorer children can expect a decent quality of schooling. Our data show children from disadvantaged as well as average or better-off backgrounds make good progress in classes taught by motivated and well-trained teachers. Teachers are evaluated six or more times a year and they assess their pupils regularly. Few teachers, including those working in disadvantaged neighbourhoods, perform poorly in assessments of their knowledge for teaching grade 5. Most classrooms have electricity and more than 96% of pupils have core textbooks for their own use. Both teacher and student absenteeism averaged only two days over our study period of 8 months.

Some of the reasons for higher learning levels in Vietnam are cultural and historical. Parental expectations are typically high and the Confucian culture may be seen as emphasising hard work over natural ability. But the school system, which emphasises minimum standards and pays particular attention to disadvantaged areas, is very important too. The centralised curriculum, text-books and teacher training in Vietnam mean that standards across the country relate to common goals and norms. The demands of the curriculum are within reach of most pupils, and the system motivates teachers to ensure that the majority of their class reaches required standards by the time they finish primary school.

Vietnam has very few private schools so families expect the state system to deliver a good education for all children. And the government sets a benchmark for the resources and facilities it expects every school to provide. This contrasts with many developing countries where there is still a legacy of education systems that were designed to serve a small bureaucratic elite. Very often the curriculum is too difficult for most pupils so only a few reach the required standard and the less advantaged majority are left behind at the starting blocks.

Vietnam faces its own challenges, but we found a system where teacher commitment is absolutely fundamental and where there is an assumption of equity across the board. Some things about the Vietnamese schooling system are transferrable while others may not be replicable in contexts where social and cultural conditions are very different. But governments and their partners in other countries can learn from Vietnam’s common minimum

YL Vietnam

standards and appropriate curriculum.

Teachers in Vietnam are evaluated regularly, and are held accountable through the commune system rather than by the risk of being fired if their performance is unsatisfactory. Low levels of effort and commitment from teacher is a huge problem in many other systems where incentives are low and accountability is weak, often reflected in high absenteeism. If they want their investment in education to deliver the goods, governments need to find appropriate ways of making teachers more accountable and donors can play a strong role in providing assistance to support this. It would involve proper monitoring systems and much more parental involvement, enabling communities to have greater scrutiny over what’s going on in their schools.

Families everywhere are investing huge hope in education as a route out of poverty for the next generation and they are making enormous sacrifices to send their kids to school. But while the recent ‘MDG push’ means that millions of children are now going to school, until education systems are made more accountable, many kids will never learn enough to transform their future prospects.


  1. Very interesting Duncan. I’m interested to know if the ‘Young Lives’ project considers young people with disabilities. I work in Vietnam and while the schools may be better than in many other developing countries, they are still failing most kids with disabilities – only about 50% of people with disabilities have completed primary school and beyond that the figures barely register. The government is aware of the issue and trying to increase participation, but it’s difficult.

    Of course, having trained, valued and accountable teachers and a national curriculum in place will help once those disabled kids do get in – so I guess that’s something.

    Interesting to know whether other countries in the study face similar difficulties and if the ‘Young Lives’ project can cast any light on good practices for kids with disabilities.

  2. What else can we learn from Vietnam’s education system? That if you beat children and threaten to send them to juvenile detention centres where they are physically and emotionally abused and are detained without charge then they might be more motivated to ‘do as they are told’?

  3. Thank you for your comment Caitlin. Young Lives has some (limited) data on children with visual, hearing and mobility impediments. One of the challenges for a household survey like this is that children with disabilities are often ‘hidden’ and so when we started out (in 2002) and the survey teams obtained lists of children of a certain age from the community authorities, children with disabilities may not have been included. We are about to start doing some mixed-methods analysis about children with disabilities in India. You can read about the experiences of one of the children with a disability here: http://www.younglives.org.uk/files/others/childrens-perspectives/india/sarada. This tells a positive story about the role of self-help groups, however, this example may well be atypical, especially for children who face challenges leaving the house. For a more extensive discussion of the experiences of children living with disabilities and possible policies to assist you might like to look at UNICEF’s State of the World’s Children 2013 (http://www.unicef.org/sowc2013/) which was actually launched in Vietnam.

  4. I am very surprised to see this article. I have been living and working in Vietnam for almost 4 years and I have only heard stories of corruption and privilege regarding schooling here.

    It is not difficult to ask around and find out about parents paying under the table to have their children admitted to high-level schools, teachers being paid to raise grades, teachers expecting to be given gifts from parents, and parents pushing their children to the point of insanity by forcing them to study at ‘hoc them’ institutes until 10pm every night.

    The reality seems to be very far from what i am reading here. However, if this is a model to follow, I would only expect to be shocked by what is going on elsewhere.

  5. I’m agreeing with Jonathan and going against what this articles implies. I don’t think there is anything to learn from Vietnam, I have also lived there for the last 2 years. The education system is very corrupted. This is not the model to follow.

Leave a comment

Translate »